Mois : mars 2023

What are the Essential Techniques of Risk Management Human Resources, Diversity and Inclusion CSUF

A put option gives you the right, but not the obligation, to sell the underlying stock at a specified priced at or before the option expires. Therefore, if you own XYZ stock for $100 and buy the six-month $80 put for $1.00 per option in premium, then you will be effectively stopped out from any price drop below $79 ($80 strike minus the $1 premium paid). Risk avoidance is another mitigation strategy that tries to prevent being exposed to a risk scenario completely.

The execution of these strategies happens only under certain predefined conditions. The team waits for sufficient warning signals before implementing these strategies. The degree of specifics in your risk management for brokers response plan for each risk should equal the issue's magnitude and therefore be prioritized. Rank each risk by factoring in both its likelihood of happening and its potential effect on the project.

If you lose 10% of your capital, you only need a gain of 11.1% to get to breakeven. But if you lose 50%, you'll need to double your money just to get back to even. A poorly worded risk appetite statement could hem in a company or be misinterpreted by regulators as condoning unacceptable risks. Economic, fraud, regulatory, climatic, and cyberspace risks have never been more apparent on the dashboards of risk professionals. Using spreadsheets to manage the risk process is a significant vulnerability for the organization, but fixing this issue is low on the priority list.

  • The next step is to arrange all the identified risks in order of priority.
  • Acceptance means accepting the risk, especially when no other suitable strategy is available to eliminate the risk.
  • Risk management structures are tailored to do more than just point out existing risks.
  • But as Valente noted, companies that define themselves as risk averse with a low risk appetite are sometimes off the mark in their risk assessments.
  • Ask everyone to identify risks they've either experienced before or may have additional insight about.

Create a smarter security framework to manage the full threat lifecycle. Risk analysis involves establishing the probability that a risk event might occur and the potential outcome of each event. Risk evaluation compares the magnitude of each risk and ranks them according to prominence and consequence. The answer is that even though people win jackpots, in the long run, casinos are still profitable because they rake in more money from the people that don’t win. People go to Las Vegas all the time to gamble their money in hopes of winning a big jackpot, and in fact, many people do win. Over 1.8 million professionals use CFI to learn accounting, financial analysis, modeling and more.

Quantitative Risk Assessment

In addition, risk management provides a business with a basis upon which it can undertake sound decision-making. On the other hand, a take-profit point is the price at which a trader will sell a stock and take a profit on the trade. For example, if a stock is approaching a key resistance level after a large move upward, traders may want to sell before a period of consolidation takes place. Conversely, unsuccessful traders often enter a trade without having any idea of the points at which they will sell at a profit or a loss. Like gamblers on a lucky—or unlucky—streak, emotions begin to take over and dictate their trades. Losses often provoke people to hold on and hope to make their money back, while profits can entice traders to imprudently hold on for even more gains.

What is proper risk management

The first key to risk management in trading is determining your trading strategy's win-loss ratio, and the average size of your wins and losses. If you know these numbers, and they add up to long-term profitability, you are well on your way to successful trading. If you don't know those numbers, you are putting your trading account at risk.

Risk Transference

From projects and operations to finance and security, a risk management strategy helps organizations reduce all types of risk by identifying root causes and providing a framework for mitigation. A risk management strategy helps organizations assure business continuity in the face of ambiguity with the most effective tool—preparedness. By surfacing and quantifying risks, organizations can take measures to ensure they are in a position to react quickly and effectively if a risk turns into an issue.

What is proper risk management

The assessment and management of risks need extensive data collection and analysis. Qualitative risk analysis is one technique that can be used to assist spot trouble spots in a project. A complete qualitative risk analysis is essential to identify and rank risks and create mitigation, monitoring, and reevaluation plans. You could be the most talented trader in the world with a natural eye for investment opportunities, and still blow your account with one bad call without proper risk management. No matter how good you are, or how experienced you are, you’re still going to incur losses. Even the best traders in the world suffer losing trades - it’s part and parcel of trading.

Strategies and Tactics of Risk Management

In an active acceptance approach, a contingency reserve is designed to recover the losses of time, money, or resources. As a risk strategy, weighing an endeavor's potential benefits and drawbacks before committing time and money is an excellent way for businesses and project teams to make informed decisions. It's not just about the potential gains and losses of spending money on opportunities; it also sheds light on the price of missed chances. Most organizations' primary goal is to maintain a positive profit margin. Financial losses can be enormous after an incident like a breach, and dealing with the aftermath sometimes requires spending countless hours on end in tedious meetings with legal and insurance representatives.

It can also be used to prevent this altogether by identifying and remediating root causes. Reducing the impact of risk plays an important role in the timely completion of projects and smooth operations. By constricting the potentially negative effects of the unexpected, a risk management strategy can help expose potential issues and allow teams to remove obstacles before they become problems. With https://www.xcritical.com/ these out of the way, organizations can focus on achieving their objectives and potentially realize better-than-expected results. During this step, your team will estimate the probability and fallout of each risk to decide where to focus first. Factors such as potential financial loss to the organization, time lost, and severity of impact all play a part in accurately analyzing each risk.

These processes evolve in a cycle where each new risk is identified, examined, and managed. In addition, continuous monitoring is done to check how the risk is adequately tackled. Risk management should be viewed as an iterative process, not a linear one.

What is proper risk management

We introduce people to the world of trading currencies, both fiat and crypto, through our non-drowsy educational content and tools. We're also a community of traders that support each other on our daily trading journey. This is a classic example of how statisticians make money over gamblers. Even though both lose money, the statistician, or casino in this case, knows how to control its losses. When you trade without risk management rules, you are in fact….gambling. Making sure you make the most of your trading means never putting all your eggs in one basket.

This entails using AI and other advanced technologies to automate inefficient and ineffective manual processes. ERM and GRC platforms that include AI tools and other features are available from various risk management software vendors. Organizations can also take advantage of open source GRC tools and related resources. These types of experts increasingly come from a consulting background or have a "consulting mindset," he said, and they possess a deep understanding of the mechanics of business.

Strategy risks are those a company voluntarily assumes in order to generate superior returns from its strategy. External risks arise from events outside the company and are beyond its influence or control. Sources of these risks include natural and political disasters and major macroeconomic shifts. Risk events from any category can be fatal to a company’s strategy and even to its survival. "Siloed" vs. holistic is one of the big distinctions between the two approaches, according to Shinkman. In traditional risk management programs, for example, risk has typically been the job of the business leaders in charge of the units where the risk resides.

It is important to do an evaluation before making any major changes to the risk management framework. Most risk management solutions have different categories of risks, depending on the severity of the risk. A risk that may cause some inconvenience is rated lowly, risks that can result in catastrophic loss are rated the highest. It is important to rank risks because it allows the organization to gain a holistic view of the risk exposure of the whole organization. The business may be vulnerable to several low-level risks, but it may not require upper management intervention.

Type 9: Contingency Planning

Depending on the circumstances, businesses should prepare for several potential courses of action. The goal of contingency planning is to prepare for the possibility that something may go wrong and to have a plan in place to deal with the specific risks that you anticipate will derail your original plan. Managers of any project know they need a safety net, whether it's an audit or a piece of technology. Risks are mitigated by buffers, which keep projects within their specified boundaries. Depending on the project, funding, material, or time can all serve as buffers. The point is to eliminate any potential danger that may be introduced by something out of the blue.

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What Is An Introducing Broker And How Does It Work?

Futures have long had a job within the markets for major bodily commodities corresponding to crude oil, gold, and wheat. Producers and consumers in volatile industries obtain cheap prices prematurely. Traders may be seeking a hedge in opposition https://www.xcritical.com/ to possible losses or making a speculative guess on the path of commodity costs. Your commission is updated in real time, and you'll request to obtain your payout anytime you want through the multiple withdrawal methods we offer.

By changing into an introducing broker, you probably can increase your business to offer a broad range of providers, such as portfolio administration and financial recommendation. This is not going to solely help you generate extra profits but also allow you to construct robust relationships with clients. For consultants introducing forex broker in the field, becoming an introducing dealer offers an opportunity to realize monetary freedom and create a prosperous profession by introducing new traders to the market. All an IB Forex companion has to do is refer purchasers to a buying and selling platform and get rewarded for it. Every time considered one of your referred clients makes a trade, you get an IB Forex commission.

What Is The Futures Market?

Revenue-share model is a commission association during which a partner receives a portion of the commission from clients' successful transactions. This mannequin rewards partners primarily based on how active referred prospects are, meaning that the more they trade, the upper commissions introducing brokers can receive. An Introducing Broker (IB) acts as a priceless link between brokers and traders or potential clients. The major aim of an IB is to help brokers appeal to new clients to their trading platforms, while additionally helping merchants by offering the avenue for an acceptable buying and selling platform.

Also, the Forex IB program implies receiving a progressive rebate, whereas Affiliates obtain a commission for each verified energetic dealer based on the CPA model after the trial period. It is not important that their actions be associated to financial services. Independent financial consultants, profitable merchants, and all types of sales managers can also make good IBs. Of course, it's advisable that such an individual has a loyal shopper base. Excellent customer service can set you aside and helps build a loyal shopper base.

Introducing Dealer Vs Associates

Stay updated on new trading instruments, rules, and technological developments. When it comes to choosing a dealer to partner with, it is important to think about extra than just the commission construction. Look for a dealer who not solely offers competitive commissions but additionally demonstrates reliability, transparency, and powerful assist services. Read evaluations, research and search recommendations from trusted sources before deciding on a dealer to partner up with. The major precedence ought to be to ensure that new introducing brokers are dealing with respected and regulated brokers. This will make certain that the clients who sign up are treated pretty and that the IB funds are paid on time and accurately.

forex introducing broker commissions

Developing sturdy relationships with clients and providing excellent customer service is integral to the success of an IB. You can network at commerce shows and occasions, begin a website or social media web page, chilly call potential customers, and attain out to those who may be interested in investing. Additionally, you have to maintain track of market changes and inform your clients of any news that will influence their portfolios.

Why Become An Introducing Broker?

Our aim is simple – to create partnerships that final for years to come. We give you the material to construct robust IB businesses and that includes generous payouts, top-notch services, and the most recent expertise. We understand your unique needs and give you assist that greatest fits your small business. Create a plan of motion that features details on how you plan to amass customers, what services and products you need to supply, and the way you will grow your business. An Introducing Broker (IB) is normally a partner engaged within the Forex enterprise, e.g., running a Forex-related web site, discussion board, or an educational middle. The introducing Forex dealer may be an individual or a company that receives earnings from every transaction accomplished by a consumer on the platform.

Instead, IBs present buyers with priceless companies — they help prospects discover one of the best investment merchandise, provide recommendation on trades, manage risks, and provide customer support. The primary broker supplies IB partners with all essential software, help, recommendation, and directions for attracting clients. Once partnered with a broker, IBs actively hunt down and recruit potential purchasers, referring them to the partner brokerage. However, IBs go beyond easy referrals – it is not unusual to seek out them providing personalised companies to their purchasers, such as buyer help, trading assistance, and training. This fosters a more in-depth relationship with clients, which can encourage them to commerce extra with the partnered dealer. Introducing brokers play a vital role in facilitating consumer acquisition, providing specialized data and assist, and streamlining account administration processes.

As of at present, one of many simplest and smartest methods to enter the monetary market and provide your purchasers brokerage services is to become an Introducing Broker (IB). IB packages provide involved gamers loads of alternatives to develop their customer base and earn through numerous reward schemes. In this article, we'll discover the role of introducing brokers in detail, study how they work and what benefits introducing brokers gain from the IB program.

  • We may also discover the differences between associates and introducing brokers additional, and have a look at some ideas for brand new IBs getting into the market.
  • That means every time your client closes a trade, fulfils a buying and selling requirement, or carries out specific transactions, you will earn a commission or rebate.
  • Rebates are usually paid out as quickly as per day, unlike CPA, the place payments are inclined to occur as quickly as per thirty days, for the earlier month's exercise.
  • In addition, shoppers have access to a extensive variety of services that may assist them make knowledgeable selections about their investments.
  • They develop a foreign exchange CRM customised to their very own ambitions, tactics, and imaginative and prescient for serving traders.
  • By changing into an introducing dealer, you can increase your small business to offer a broad range of providers, corresponding to portfolio management and monetary recommendation.

This permits you to create a passive income stream that grows as your shopper base expands over time. Introducing brokers, briefly, are intermediaries who join partnered brokers with potential clients, incomes commissions and rebates within the course of. Read on to be taught some tricks to improve your introducing dealer commissions. Understanding how an foreign exchange introducing broker works is crucial for traders navigating the world of forex trading.

Futures investing is comparatively risky and comparatively advanced, even compared to inventory investing. Anyone decided to participate instantly should have an excellent understanding of the ins and outs of futures buying and selling before jumping into it. Your earnings can grow exponentially, when new IBs register underneath you and more new IBs register underneath them.

Additionally, since you are promoting an present brokerage agency, you don't have full management over trading services or operations, which might limit your potential income and hinder your development as a broker. An instance of this is a comparison website that lists various brokers on its site. In this article, we are going to explain what an introducing broker (IB) is, what they do, and how to turn into one. We will also discover the differences between associates and introducing brokers additional, and look at some tips for brand spanking new IBs coming into the market. They present their clients with buying and selling schooling and support, as properly as access to the financial markets.

forex introducing broker commissions

IBs receive this charge directly from the shoppers they check with the broker. The referral charge could be a mounted amount, or a proportion of the buying and selling commissions paid by the consumer to the dealer. When buying our spinoff merchandise you haven't got any entitlement, proper or obligation to the underlying monetary asset. AxiTrader is not a financial adviser and all companies are provided on an execution solely basis. Information is of a common nature solely and doesn't contemplate your financial objectives, wants or personal circumstances. Important authorized documents in relation to our services are available on our website.

forex introducing broker commissions

Another profit IBs get pleasure from is that they are not restricted to how much they will earn, and through what timeframe. Introducing brokers - also called IBs for short - are individuals or corporations who act as an agent between the dealer and the shopper. Keep in thoughts that a margin account is a sort of collateral required in return for borrowing money from the dealer to finance trading. There are also futures markets for stocks, indexes, and currencies, among others.

In addition, clients choose to deal with trusted and reliable counterparties. Upon obtaining your license, you'll need to submit a comprehensive utility bundle that might be reviewed by the native regulator. There are sometimes completely different requirements in numerous countries, so it is important to ensure you are compliant with all native legal guidelines. IB businesses provide many benefits, but there may also be some drawbacks. As an IB, you wouldn't have the identical diploma of independence as a regular broker does.

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Cryptocurrency Taxes: A Guide To Tax Rules For Bitcoin, Ethereum And More

If you buy and sell on multiple exchanges, you’ll probably need to track your basis manually. But it’s important to keep track of your cost basis—what you paid for the tokens, including fees. You need to know the cost basis of all cryptocurrency purchases in your portfolio to accurately determine your tax bill. Buying and holding cryptocurrency or another digital asset does not create a taxable event. Simply purchasing cryptocurrency is a lot like buying a piece of art and hanging it on your wall—at least for tax purposes. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) classifies cryptocurrency as property, treating it like other investment assets such as real estate, stocks, and fine art.

Another way to incur tax liability is by swapping out your digital assets. If you sell Bitcoin to buy Ethereum, for example, then the IRS considers the two transactions separately. That means crypto income and capital gains are taxable and crypto losses may be tax deductible.

What are short-term capital gains?

Users can also offset their crypto losses against their gains — but be careful, as lost or stolen crypto is not considered a loss and must be filed as a negligible value claim. Getting paid in crypto, airdrops received, staking rewards, DeFi interest rewards, mining rewards, and even referral bonuses all fall under income tax in the US. If you have $40,000 of income for the year and claim $16,000 worth of itemized deductions, your taxable income will fall to $24,000. In some cases, deductions can reduce your taxable income to the point where you may fall into a lower marginal tax bracket. It’s important to note that the vast majority of crypto investors will likely not be required to pay NIIT. The tax only applies if you’ve reached the following thresholds of net investment income.

Is there a crypto tax

How crypto transactions are taxed, how information is reported, and what penalties apply for non-compliance all have the potential to evolve as the crypto industry matures. By monitoring crypto news and trends, tax professionals can ensure that they stay on top of all changes that matter for tax. Using fiat money to buy and hold cryptocurrency is generally not taxable until the crypto is traded, spent, or sold. Cryptocurrency may be akin to digital money — but it’s a long way from cash for tax purposes.

Regulators are taking notice – especially as an estimated $50 billion worth of crypto taxes have gone unreported. If someone pays you cryptocurrency in exchange for goods or services, the payment counts as taxable income, just as if they'd paid you via cash, check, credit card, or digital wallet. For tax reporting, the dollar value that you receive for goods or services is equal to the fair market value of the cryptocurrency on the day and time you received it. •   The IRS treats cryptocurrency as property, meaning that when you buy, sell or exchange it, this counts as a taxable event and typically results in either a capital gain or loss. If you realize a gain from selling an NFT, then you owe taxes on those gains.

If you instead sold the same $1,000 worth of Bitcoin for $800, you’d recognize a loss that can offset other gains and up to $3,000 of your taxable income if your total losses are greater than your total gains. Any unused loss can roll forward to future years as an offset to future gains or up to $3,000 of your taxable income per year. This is treated as ordinary income and is taxed at your marginal tax rate, which could be between 10 to 37%. If you've invested in cryptocurrency, understand how the IRS taxes these investments and what constitutes a taxable event. There are no legal ways to avoid paying taxes on your crypto except not using it.

The core tenets of taxation that apply to property generally apply to digital assets, too. If you use digital currency for daily transactions, you may want to enlist the help of a tax professional. For everyone else, tax software offered by companies such as H&R Block, TurboTax, TaxSlayer can help you file your taxes when you have taxable-crypto transactions. https://www.xcritical.in/ But you shouldn’t just chalk it down to a bad investment, as you can offset your losses against your gain on your tax bill. When you sell an investment asset for a loss, you can deduct some of your loss from your taxes. If you sold crypto for less than you paid for it, you can also claim a capital loss, and use it to offset other income taxes.

Step Tax-Smart Retirement Income Plan

DeFi platforms support a wide range of transactions that include buying, selling, trading, lending, and earning interest on cryptocurrency. ICOs work a lot like initial public offerings (IPOs) of stock, but they may differ in their tax treatment. Receiving a crypto token via an ICO may be treated as income at the time that the token is received, or the token may be classed as a capital asset subject to capital gains tax only when sold. The tax treatment for tokens produced by ICOs varies across jurisdictions. If you frequently interact with crypto platforms and exchanges, you may receive airdrops of new tokens in your account. These new coins count as a taxable event, causing you to pay taxes on these virtual coins.

  • Our award-winning editors and reporters create honest and accurate content to help you make the right financial decisions.
  • "You're not going to get a Form 1099 from the currency exchange, so it's on you to keep receipts and confirmations for every purchase and sale," Hayden says.
  • Staying on top of these transactions is important for tax reporting purposes.
  • That makes the events that trigger the taxes the most crucial factor in understanding crypto taxes.
  • If you have a simple tax return, you can file for free yourself with TurboTax Free Edition, or you can file with TurboTax Live Assisted Basic or TurboTax Live Full Service Basic at the listed price.
  • When you're buying anything with crypto, the taxable gain or loss is based on what you paid for the cryptocurrency and its value at the time of the transaction.

Anytime someone disposes of crypto in the US, a capital gains tax applies. This refers to ​​selling, trading, or buying goods and services with cryptocurrency. The exact tax rate depends on a user’s income tax bracket, which ranges from 10%–37% for short-term capital gains, which is considered to be anything held for less than a year. In order to accurately report your cryptocurrency transactions at tax time, you’ll need to keep thorough records and precisely calculate your capital gains and losses.

How Is Cryptocurrency Taxed?

Crypto transactions might be taxed as income if they show signs of business transactions (e.g., a user promotes a product or service, or makes a transaction for commercial reasons). Mining and staking of crypto are also usually considered business income. In the United States, stocks are subject to a wash sale rule which states that investors cannot claim losses if they buy back their shares within 30 days. Inherited cryptocurrency is treated like other capital assets that are passed from one generation to another. They may be subject to estate taxes if the estate exceeds certain thresholds ($12.92 million in 2023). With a bank or brokerage, you (and the IRS) will typically get a Form 1099 reporting the income you’ve received during the year.

Is there a crypto tax

So you’re on the hook to answer definitively whether you’ve transacted in cryptocurrency, putting you in a position to potentially lie to the IRS. If you don’t answer honestly, you could be in further legal jeopardy, and the IRS does not look kindly on liars and tax cheats. Our experts have been helping you master your money for over four decades. We continually strive to provide consumers with the expert advice and tools needed to succeed throughout life’s financial journey. While we adhere to strict editorial integrity, this post may contain references to products from our partners.

Where do I report cryptocurrency on my taxes?

If you itemize your deductions, you may donate cryptocurrency to qualified charitable organizations and claim a tax deduction. You typically can deduct the fair market value of your cryptocurrency at the time of charitable contribution, and you don’t have to pay capital gains taxes when you donate. Cryptocurrency enthusiasts often exchange or trade one type of cryptocurrency for another. For example, say you have $1,000 worth of Litecoin and exchange it for $1,000 worth of Ethereum.

More than 400,000 investors around the globe use CoinLedger to take the stress out of tax season. Also, in general, remember that crypto is highly volatile, and may be more susceptible to market manipulation than securities. Crypto holders don't benefit from the same regulatory protections applicable to registered securities, and the future regulatory environment for crypto is currently uncertain. Crypto is not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, meaning you should only buy crypto with an amount you're willing to lose.

Tools like Koinly and Cointracker connect to exchanges and crypto wallets to track your crypto transactions and complete the forms you need to file your cryptocurrency taxes. If you traded crypto in an investment account or on a crypto exchange or used it to make payments for goods and services, you may receive Form 1099-B reporting these transactions. In other investment accounts like those held with a stock broker, this information is usually provided on this 1099 Form. In this case, they can typically still provide the information even if it isn't on a 1099-B. Despite the decentralized, virtual nature of cryptocurrency, and because the IRS treats it like property, your gains and losses in crypto transactions will typically affect your taxes.

A cryptocurrency exchange could issue Forms 1099-MISC, 1099-B, and/or Forms 1099-K to its users. Regardless of whether any of the below forms are issued, taxpayers are always responsible for reporting any and all digital asset income, gains, and losses on their annual income tax return. Form 8949 is used to track the Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets. In other words, Form 8949 is used to track capital gains and losses for assets such as cryptocurrency.

Tracking cost basis across the broader cryptoeconomy can be difficult, as assets are transferred across different wallets and exchanges. Tax professionals wishing to streamline the accounting and reporting process for cryptocurrency taxes can opt to use crypto tax software. how to avoid crypto taxes UK Using a comprehensive software tool is how many tax professionals — especially those new to crypto — ensure the quality and accuracy of their work. DeFi, on the other hand, uses blockchain technology to eliminate the need for financial intermediaries like banks.

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Halfway Houses & Sober Living

Depending on the city, neighborhood and services offered, rent can range from $300 to $2,000 per month. Some sober homes do not require residents to pay utility bills, but utilities may be rationed to avoid waste. Numerous studies have shown that most people who live in sober homes after attending http://www.snip-info.ru/Vypusk_19.htm treatment have low rates of relapse and are able to live productive lives. Sober living homes are realistic, cost-effective living environmentsr for people in recovery. One of the reasons people go and visit sober living homes is to find a place to stay drug-free after a major relapse.

Residents usually have to maintain regular employment or show proof that they’re searching for employment. Curfews are often enforced, and residents have to participate in chores and attend house meetings. Prison systems in many states use halfway houses to help individuals re-enter society after incarceration. These houses provide an array of services that can include treatment for substance use disorders.

Recovery Coaching

The rules also protect the recovery of other residents in the home. Residents must continue to follow the rules through their http://ficd.ru/engsongtext-view-4748.html entire stay. Sober living programs help individuals transition from intensive addiction treatment to independent living.

  • Living in a halfway house benefits many people undergoing addiction treatment.
  • Residents elect officers every six months, do chores and pay rent.
  • A halfway house is a good option if returning to normal life is too overwhelming, but you no longer need medical supervision.
  • Some residents also pay for sober housing through scholarships, loans or credit cards.

The National Alliance for Recovery Residences is an organization that aims to educate on sober living homes while also providing support for those running them. One of the ways it has done so is to create what it calls a recovery residence — a single term that represents transitional living. Halfway houses provide more freedom to residents than inpatient treatment programs. However, https://thecolumbianews.net/ways-to-protect-wood-from-fire.html they still offer more structure and a larger support system than independent living. Nonprofit institutions, such as Oxford House, split rent and utility bills equally among residents. A study published in the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment found sober living home residents experienced improvements in arrest rates, alcohol and drug use rates, and employment rates.

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